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Time-scale problem

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Myung Chul Kim

Rare events (or so-called extreme events) are events that occur at a low frequency. Because they require a tremendous amount of time to happen, it is almost impossible for humanity to observe and analyze their behaviors and effects. This is called a time-scale problem.

When rare events happen, however, they usually have enormous effects on us. For instance, natural disasters such as wildfires, tsunamis, or earthquakes have catastrophic effects on our lives. Moreover, chemical reactions, protein folding, and enzymatic reactions crucial in the operations of numerous biological systems on Earth are also rare events. Due to their low occurrence rates, studies on rare events are lacking, making it challenging to comprehend natural phenomena. To address this issue, we develop theoretical and computational methods to simulate and accelerate rare events to gain deeper insights and understanding of our nature.